CHAPTER IV
Fundamental Rights

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    1. Every citizen of Nigeria is entitled to move freely throughout Nigeria and to reside in any part thereof, and no citizen of Nigeria shall be expelled from Nigeria or refused entry thereby or exit therefrom.
    2. Nothing in subsection (1) of this section shall invalidate any law that is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society-
      1. imposing restrictions on the residence or movement of any person who has committed or is reasonably suspected to have committed a criminal offence in order to prevent him from leaving Nigeria; or
      2. providing for the removal of any person from Nigeria to any other country to:-
        1. be tried outside Nigeria for any criminal offence, or
        2. undergo imprisonment outside Nigeria in execution of the sentence of a court of law in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been found guilty:
          Provided that there is reciprocal agreement between Nigeria and such other country in relation to such matter.


    1. A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person:-
      1. be subjected either expressly by, or in the practical application of, any law in force in Nigeria or any executive or administrative action of the government, to disabilities or restrictions to which citizens of Nigeria of other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religions or political opinions are not made subject; or
      2. be accorded either expressly by, or in the practical application of, any law in force in Nigeria or any such executive or administrative action, any privilege or advantage that is not accorded to citizens of Nigeria of other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religions or political opinions.
    2. No citizen of Nigeria shall be subjected to any disability or deprivation merely by reason of the circumstances of his birth.
    3. Nothing in subsection (1) of this section shall invalidate any law by reason only that the law imposes restrictions with respect to the appointment of any person to any office under the State or as a member of the armed forces of the Federation or member of the Nigeria Police Forces or to an office in the service of a body, corporate established directly by any law in force in Nigeria.
  1. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, every citizen of Nigeria shall have the right to acquire and own immovable property anywhere in Nigeria.

    1. No moveable property or any interest in an immovable property shall be taken possession of compulsorily and no right over or interest in any such property shall be acqui#FF0000 compulsorily in any part of Nigeria except in the manner and for the purposes prescribed by a law that, among other things -
      1. requires the prompt payment of compensation therefore and
      2. gives to any person claiming such compensation a right of access for the determination of his interest in the property and the amount of compensation to a court of law or tribunal or body having jurisdiction in that part of Nigeria.
    2. Nothing in subsection (1) of this section shall be construed as affecting any general law.
      1. for the imposition or enforcement of any tax, rate or duty;
      2. for the imposition of penalties or forfeiture for breach of any law, whether under civil process or after conviction for an offence;
      3. relating to leases, tenancies, mortgages, charges, bills of sale or any other rights or obligations arising out of contracts.
      4. relating to the vesting and administration of property of persons adjudged or otherwise decla#FF0000 bankrupt or insolvent, of persons of unsound mind or deceased persons, and of corporate or unincorporate bodies in the course of being wound-up;
      5. relating to the execution of judgements or orders of court;
      6. providing for the taking of possesion of property that is in a dangerous state or is injurious to the health of human beings, plants or animals;
      7. relating to enemy property;
      8. relating to trusts and trustees;
      9. relating to limitation of actions;
      10. relating to property vested in bodies corporate directly established by any law in force in Nigeria;
      11. relating to the temporary taking of possession of property for the purpose of any examination, investigation or enquiry;
      12. providing for the carrying out of work on land for the purpose of soil-conservation; or
      13. subject to prompt payment of compensation for damage to buildings, economic trees or crops, providing for any authority or person to enter, survey or dig any land, or to lay, install or erect poles, cables, wires, pipes, or other conductors or structures on any land, in order to provide or maintain the supply or distribution of energy, fuel, water, sewage, telecommunication services or other public facilities or public utilities.
    3. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, the entire property in and control of all minerals, mineral oils and natural gas in under or upon any land in Nigeria or in, under or upon the territorial waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone of Nigeria shall vest in the Government of the Federation and shall be managed in such manner as may be prescribed by the National Assembly.


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